Morphologically differentiated populations Population geneticists have debated whether the concept of population can provide a basis for a new conception of race.
Multiregional proponents point to the fossil record and genetic evidence in chromosomal DNA. For example, the large and highly diverse macroethnic groups of East Indians, North Africans, and Europeans are presumptively grouped as Caucasians prior to the analysis of their DNA variation.
It is disputed whether subsequent migration to North America took place around 30, years ago, or only considerably later, around 14, years ago. Haplogroup F originated some 45, years ago, either in North Africa in which case it would point to a second wave of out-of-Africa migration or in South Asia.
Genetically differentiated populations Main articles: This DNA material mutates quickly, making it easy to plot changes over relatively short times. However these humans seem to have either become extinct or retreated back to Africa 70, to 80, years ago, possibly replaced by south bound Neanderthals escaping the colder regions of ice age Europe.
It is also found among the Mbuti people. The date of this first wave of "out of Africa" migration has been called into question inbased on the discovery of stone tools in the United Arab Emirates, indicating the presence of modern humans betweenandyears ago.
This hypothesis attempts to explain why Haplogroup N is predominant in Europe and why Haplogroup M is absent in Europe.
Because the variation of physical traits is clinal and nonconcordant, anthropologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries discovered that the more traits and the more human groups they measured, the fewer discrete differences they observed among races and the more categories they had to create to classify human beings.
A growing number of researchers also suspect that "long-neglected North Africa", was the original home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent.
Their opponents, such as Louis Agassiz and Josiah C. They suggest that the authors of these studies find support for racial distinctions only because they began by assuming the validity of race.
He saw Africans as inferior to Whites especially in regards to their intellect, and imbued with unnatural sexual appetites, but described Native Americans as equals to whites. Charles Darwin was one of the first to propose common descent of living organisms, and among the first to suggest that all humans had in common ancestors who lived in Africa.
All men today have inherited their Y chromosomes from a man who livedyears ago, probably in Africa. Moreover, the genomic data underdetermines whether one wishes to see subdivisions i.
But it is useless to speculate on this subject, for an ape nearly as large as a man, namely the Dryopithecus of Lartet, which was closely allied to the anthropomorphous Hylobatesexisted in Europe during the Upper Miocene period; and since so remote a period the earth has certainly undergone many great revolutions, and there has been ample time for migration on the largest scale.
Bonnette offers a philosophical analysis of the theory of evolution with particular application to human origins. The debate in anthropology had swung in favour of monogenism by the midth century.
Brutal conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world. To this day, skin color grades by imperceptible means from Europe southward around the eastern end of the Mediterranean and up the Nile into Africa. Shell middensyears old have been found in Eritrea,  indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing.
Weiss and Fullerton have noted that if one sampled only Icelanders, Mayans and Maoris, three distinct clusters would form and all other populations could be described as being clinally composed of admixtures of Maori, Icelandic and Mayan genetic materials. A reanalysis on LM3 and other ancient specimens from the area published inshowed it to be akin to modern Aboriginal Australian sequences, inconsistent with the results of the earlier study.
These features are the distinguishing features of how the concept of race is used today. The fittest would prevail. However, this is not the first species of homininae: Isolated proponents of polygenism held forth in the midth century, such as Carleton Coonwho thought as late as that H.
Proponents of multiregional origin reject the assumption of an infertility barrier between ancient Eurasian and African populations of Homo. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life.
Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. It is now believed that more men participated in the out of Africa exodus of early humans than women based on comparing non-sex-specific chromosomes with sex-specific ones.
The Essence of Anthropology. Archaic human admixture with modern humans Evidence for archaic human species descended from Homo heidelbergensis having interbred with modern humans outside of Africa, was discovered in the s.
The proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards from Arabia to India; in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3: Notably, the findings of Harding et al. Examples of such definitions are: A multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory,  which has gained support in recent years from genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence.
The "Recent African origin" of modern humans means "single origin" monogenism and has been used in various contexts as an antonym to polygenism.
Traditionally, subspecies are seen as geographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations. The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia until reaching India.Analysis Of Multiple Theories Of Human Evolution History Essay.
Print Reference this There is an important point to be made in saying that although apes lived in other continents, human development took place exclusively in eastern Africa.
This helps one to understand the origin of homo sapiens and what conditions helped bipeds thrive. The Origin of Species study guide contains a biography of Charles Darwin, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a.
A short summary of Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of The Origin of Species.
How to Write Literary Analysis; Suggested Essay Topics; How to Cite This SparkNote. Share This SparkNote. Share on Twitter;as well as the wider distribution of species across continents.
Origin of the Human Species: Third Edition [Dennis Bonnette] on mint-body.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Origin of the Human Species, a wide-ranging philosophical and interdisciplinary analysis of evolutionary theory/5(7).
DNA ANALYSIS IN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING HUMAN EVOLUTION relatively poor with information for the origin of human populations. Using comprehensive phylo- of the sequences. The classification of Carl Linnaeus, inventor of zoological taxonomy, divided the human species Homo sapiens into and ~8% of variation occurs between large groups living on different continents.
The recent African origin theory for humans would predict that in Africa The editors also stated that "analysis by race and ethnicity.Download